188 for ADHD and 0.196 for control, P = 0.004). Table 3 presents group comparisons of the four components of the CPT. In general, children with ADHD performed worse than TD children in the CPT across the four dimensions of attention performance. With regards to the measures related to focused attention, children with ADHD made more omission errors (P < 0.001), and had higher hit Liproxstatin-1 datasheet
RT SE (P < 0.001), variability (P < 0.001), and a higher rate of perseverations (P < 0.001) compared with TD children, with a very large effect size (Cohen's d ranging from 1.0 to 1.50, Table 3). Regarding the measures related to sustained attention, children with ADHD had higher scores in hit RT changed by blocks (P = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.73), and greater SE of hit RT changed by blocks (P = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.93) than TD children. For impulsivity/hyperactivity dimension, children with ADHD made more commission errors (P = 0.045, Cohen's d = 0.57) and had longer hit RT (P = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.94) than TD children. There was no difference in response style between the two groups. As to the measures related to vigilance, children with ADHD also had longer (P < 0.001) and more variable (P < 0.001) hit RT with increased ISIs than TD children. The GFA of the left Ketanserin
orbitofrontal tract was significantly negatively correlated with the symptom of inattention in the ADHD group (regression coefficient estimate, �� = ?30.29, P = 0.005, R2 = 0.29) but not in TD children. In general, a strong association between attention performance and the frontostriatal tracts was observed only in TD children but not in children with ADHD with one exception that in the ADHD group, the GFA value of the left ventrolateral tract explained 21% of variance of response style, a measure related to testing cognitive impulsivity (Table 4). However, there were no statistically significant correlations of the CCPT measures with global GFA in both ADHD (p values ranging 0.223�C0.894) and TD (P values ranging 0.111�C0.687) groups. In summary, around 40�C45% of the variability in focused attention, including omissions (F(3,21) = 4.89, P = 0.010, R2 = 0.41), hit RT SE (F(3,21) = 5.48, P = 0.006, R2 = 0.44), variability (F(3,21) = 5.61, P = 0.006, R2 = 0.45) and perseverations (F(3,21) = 4.65, P = 0.012, R2 = 0.40) that were explained by the integrity, i.e., GFA values of the right dorsolateral prefrontal tract (not preservation), Midostaurin ic50
right medial prefrontal (perseveration only), left orbitofrontal tract, and left ventrolateral tract in the TD group. In the dimension of sustained attention, 45% of variability in Hit RT changed by blocks was explained by the right medial prefrontal tract, left orbitofrontal tract, and right ventrolateral prefrontal tract (F(4,20) = 4.02, P = 0.015). Hit RT variability (SE) changed by block was correlated with the right dorsolateral prefrontal tract and left orbitofrontal tract (F(2,22) = 7.40, P = 0.004, R2 = 0.40).