All animals were subjected to supervised randomization between each phase of the behavioral battery so that both groups being tested for each behavior had identical prior experimental exposure. Two weeks following the conclusion of behavioral studies (?9 weeks after stereotactic injections) Clic4 expression from AAV-CLIC4 injected animals was detected in vivo by immunohistochemistry using antisera against the FLAG epitope tag. Ethanol regulation of endogenous Clic4 mRNA in mouse brain was determined through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm prior microarray studies (Kerns et al. 2005). Additional details are provided as Appendix PD-0332991 order
S1. A Clic4 coexpression network was initially generated using Pearson product�Cmoment correlation coefficients with basal gene expression data from medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) across 27 BXD recombinant inbred mice, as well as C57BL/6J and DBA/2J progenitors (n = 29). This was performed within the GeneNetwork resource for genetic analysis of genomic and phenotypic traits (www.genenetwork.org). To address possible false positives due to multiple comparisons, P-values were corrected using the q-value false-discovery rate method (Qian & Huang 2005) within the R statistical framework (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.4/bioc/html/qvalue.html
), and resulting q-values were filtered for q < 0.05, resulting in a total of 1015 probe sets. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (www.ingenuity.com) was utilized to assess the biological significance and relationships between these genes, Megestrol Acetate
based on current scientific literature, using the Pearson correlation coefficients (positive and negative) as signals for individual genes (Fig. S7). Flies were grown at 20��C (Clic homozygous mutants) or 25��C (all other genotypes) and 55% relative humidity on a standard sugar:yeast:cornmeal:agar medium GSK2118436 purchase
(10:2:3.3:1% w/v, respectively) supplemented with 0.2% Tegosept (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and active dry yeast under a 12-h light�Cdark cycle. P[EPgy2]ClicEY04209 (i.e. ClicEY04209) and P[w[+mC]=lacW]Clic[G0472] (i.e. ClicG0472) were obtained from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (Bloomington, IN, USA). To assess Clic expression, qRT-PCR studies were performed using standard methods as described (Jones et al. 2009). Additional details are provided as Appendix S1. For all fly behavioral studies, groups of 25 adult flies (2�C5 days old, grown in parallel) were collected under brief CO2 anesthesia, transferred to fresh food vials and housed overnight at 25��C and 55% relative humidity. Each group of 25 flies constituted n = 1 (7425 total flies were used for the reported behavioral studies). Sensitivity and rapid tolerance to ethanol (provided as a vapor) were determined in flies using ethanol rapid iterative negative geotaxis (eRING) assays at 25��C and 55�C65% relative humidity as described (Bhandari et al. 2009).